A new technique more easily locates cancer cells so that immunotherapy eliminates them more efficiently, something that, according to the authors of the study published in ‘PNAS’, could lead to a new way of treating cancer. The key is the use of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, an immune complex present on the surface of all human cells that are a prerequisite for the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer. When cancer cells face pressure from the immune system, they actively reduce their MHC class I molecules, so cancer cells can hide from attracting the attention of CD8+ T cells, the main immune system cells that fight cancer. cancer. What this team of researchers from Japan and the US has now done, they have developed a technology to increase the amount of MHC class I in cancer cells. Related News standard No Obesity and alcohol cause an increase in colon cancer in young Europeans R. Ibarra In Spain there will also be an increase in this tumor in young men by 5.5% »Our discovery has the potential to transform the way “in which we approach cancer treatment,” says Professor Koichi Kobayashi, from Hokkaido University and the Texas A&M Health Center. “Our technology allows us to specifically target genes that respond to the immune system and activate the immune system against cancer cells, offering hope to those who resist current immunotherapy.” The team had previously identified a gene, NLRC5, that regulates MHC class I levels. They further discovered that NLRC5 is suppressed by turning off existing molecular switches in the DNA of cancers to reduce MHC class I levels. Their technology, known as The TRED-I (Targeted Reactivation and Demethylation for MHC-I) system was able to restore DNA methylation of the NLRC5 gene and further activate NLRC5, thereby increasing MHC class I levels in cancer without causing serious side effects. . More options “New modalities to combat cancer like this are desperately needed because we have few solutions to combat some types of cancer,” says Paul de Figueiredo, principal investigator at Bond LSC and professor at the University of Missouri. TRED-I has been tested in animal models of cancer and was able to significantly reduce tumor size and increase the activity of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. When used in conjunction with existing immunotherapy, TRED-I improved treatment efficacy. And furthermore, the TRED-I system was effective for tumor located at a distance from the original target tumor, showing potential for treating metastatic cancers. Researchers are now testing direct administration of the TRED-I system in cancer patients. These drugs could improve the immune system’s effectiveness in eliminating cancer and could also improve the response to existing therapy.