The Greek word “opion” just means “milky juice”. A quarter of the raw opium weight is made up of alkaloids – about twenty substances that exert a certain effect on the human body. Among them, the most important are morphine and codeine. The remaining three parts of the weight are water, rubber, fats, waxes, oils, proteins, sugars, mineral and organic salts. In many countries, opium has been used in folk medicine as an anesthetic, sedative and hypnotic, as a remedy for a cough and diarrhea. Various derivatives of raw opium – for example, smoking opium, morphine, and semi-synthetic heroin – are also used as intoxicants. These substances form an addiction in a person and are therefore classified as drugs.
The mechanism of the analgesic effect of narcotic analgesics consists in inhibition at different levels of the central nervous system, transmission of painful impulses from pain receptors to the cerebral cortex.
Painful medications reduce or nullify the perception of pain, change the emotional color of pain and reaction to it. Although the perception of the pain syndrome persists, the response becomes different. This is how Xanax, Valium and other powerful analgesics work.
Some products derived from opium
Opium – that is, dried milky juice, raw opium – for about ten percent consists of a morphine drug. Opium can be used as a drug already in its natural form or purified (after crushing, dissolving in water, evaporation, and filtration). This so-called smoking opium is a black oily mass with the same specific taste and odor as raw opium. Opium is very common among the population of those countries where opium poppy grows. Opium is smoked in special tubes, swallowed, drunk or injected intravenously. Opium is used as an intoxicant, and poor peasants use it as a medicine.
After flowering, gray-green poppy heads are formed, containing a whitish milky juice.
Morphine base. Raw opium is a base of an extract, morphine-base, from which, by purification, you can get morphine and heroin. It is a white or yellowish crystalline powder, which often darkens during storage and acquires a dark brown color. Morphine content in it is very high and can reach 60-90 percent. To inject intravenously this powder, which does not dissolve in water, addicts dilute it with acid and heat it.
The most famous narcotic from opium is heroin – a chemical substance derived from the opium poppy. This beautiful, blood-colored flower grows usually in hot and dry climates (it can also be violet, white). Rejuvenate – the poppy box, which remains after the petals fall, – contains syrup – white treacle, which is collected by those who grow opium poppies. When molasses dries, it turns into a brown mass, which we call raw opium.
From opium, pharmacists receive a large number of conventional drugs. Many of them are officially used in medicine. The most common are the derivatives of morphine and codeine, which are used as analgesics.
Opiates is a collective name for drugs made of opium. They have a relaxing effect on the nervous system, dull the sensation of pain. Opium-raw is dried milky juice, which is obtained from unripe poppy heads – the fruit of the plant poppy-soporific.